Saturday, April 12, 2014

Pictures of 10 Deadly Viruses, Bacteria, & Parasites

Many people have heard of the deadly viruses, bacteria, and parasites shown below, but have you ever seen what they look like? Below is a collection of images depicting the microbial monsters. Which one do you think looks the most frightening?

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10. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): SARS is a potentially deadly and highly contagious viral syndrome. It led to an outbreak in China that killed nearly 1000 people. The virus causing SARS (known as the SARS coronavirus) is pictured.


9. Typhoid fever: Typhoid fever is a bacterial disease that typically affects the intestines. However, it can affect the lungs in some case with no signs of intestinal damage. It is transmitted by ingesting food or water containing the feces of the infected person which contains the bacteria, Salmonella enterica enterica (pictured).


8.Yellow fever: This is a viral disease that can cause liver damage resulting in yellow skin.  It is caused by a virus (a type of Flavivirus; pictured) transmitted by mosquitoes. There is no cure.


7. Cholera: This is an infection of the small intestine caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae (pictured). It is known to cause diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and gray-blue skin. It is spread by coming in contact with water or food contaminated by the bacteria. If untreaded, 50 to 60% of people infected with it, will die.


6. Malaria: Malaria is a serious disease caused by parasites that is spread by mosquitoes. This picture shows healthy red blood cells surrounding red blood cells (pale color) that are being attacked by malaria parasites.


5. Bird Flu (Avian Flu): This is a type of flu that has adapted to birds but which can adapt to infect different species, including humans. A picture of the bird flu virus is shown.


4. Marburg virus: This is a virus (pictured) that causes fever and bleeding disorders. In many cases, it leads to shock and death, which is why it is considered a severe disease in humans. It is named after the city of Marburg, Germany, where the virus was first identified during an outbreak in the 1960s.


3. Ebola virus: This is a very dangerous virus (pictured) that causes severe disease in humans and other primates.  It is named after the Ebola River in the Republic of Congo where the first recorded ebola virus took place.


2. Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV): HIV is a virus that attacks the body’s immune system, leading to infections and harmful tumors. AIDS is a decrease in the effectiveness of the body's immune system that is due to HIV infection. An HIV virus particle is shown in the picture.


1. Bacillus anthracis: This is the bacteria known to cause anthrax, a type of biological infection. Signs and symptoms of anthrax infection typically begin one to five days after being exposed to anthrax spores, but can take as long as sixty days to appear. A spore is a form of bacteria that is resistant to heat, drying, and chemicals. The picture above shows anthrax spores. It is important to note the big difference between being exposed to anthrax and being infected with it. Exposure to anthrax only means that one has come in contact with the bacteria. Not everybody who is exposed to anthrax becomes infected, although some do. Anthrax infection means that the anthrax spores have invaded the body and are multiplying, causing various signs and symptoms.


Thursday, April 10, 2014

Adolescent Mass Murderers: 10 Warning Signs

On 4/8/14, 16-year-old Alex Hribal is alleged to have stabbed 21 people in school with kitchen knives in Murrysville Pennsylvania. As of now, not much is known about Hribal’s past except that he has been described as a loner by some peers (although his attorney denies this).

As it turns out, however, this is the main characteristic of adolescent mass murderers. Peers who have been interviewed to date have said they are unaware of Hribal being bullied. Law enforcement officials have said that his social media presence was minimal and that he does not appear to have owned a cell phone.

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When events like this occur, especially when they lead to murder, people naturally try to understand why. What follows are 10 characteristics of 34 male adolescent (ages 11 to 19) mass murderers (intentionally killing 3 or more victims) between 1958 and 1988 based on the work of Meloy and colleagues (2001). Although Hribal cannot be classified as a mass murderer at this time, this easily could have happened given the critical condition status of 4 of the victims. Some of the characteristics below are accompanied by my own editorial comments and may not necessarily reflect the thinking of Meloy and colleagues.

1. Most (70%) are described as loners. Peers may consider the person an outcast, which can cause and/or reinforce the loner status. When one is a loner, by definition, they are less attached to others around them. When one is less attached to those around them, emotional barriers are removed that would normally prevent seriously harming others. School officials must do a better job at identifying loners and trying to better socially engage them.

2. In 62% of cases, the adolescent was known to abuse substances, including alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, amphetamine, LSD, PCP, inhalants, and heroin. In my experience, this is often due to the adolescent using drugs as way to escape personal emotional pain.

3. In 59% of cases, there was some type of precipitating event (hours or days before the murder) that was significantly emotionally disturbing to the perpetrator or was obvious when reviewing the social history. Examples include but are not limited to a real or fantasized loss of a relationship with a girl, family dispute (see point X below), school suspension, bullying (see point X), or being fired from a job.

4. In 58% of cases, the adolescent made some type of threat regarding mass murder to a third party, usually days or months before the killings. 44% discussed murder with at least one person before the event. This is why it is important for parents to monitor their children’s social media accounts and to alert school officials about any alarming statements.

5. In 48% of cases, the adolescent was known to be preoccupied with war or weapons. Examples include but are not limited to owning a large amount of weapons, owning many materials related to violent themes, frequent trips to shooting ranges, grandiose fantasies about war and weapons, infatuation with Nazi regalia or street gangs, and idealization of fictionalized or non-fictionalized violent characters or people.

6. In 46% of cases, the adolescent had been arrested in the past and 42% had a history of violence against another personal, animal, or property. As of this time, Hribal is not known to have a violent past.

7. Many (43%) were bullied. Peers thus far interviewed have stated that they were not aware of Hribal being bulled. This does not mean he was not bullied, of course. Regardless, it is a reason why anti-bullying programs must continue in school.

8. Many (44%) were “fantasziers” in that they had a daily pre-occupation with fantasy games, books, or hobbies. Violent fantasies were common, which is why when I evaluate adolescents I look for these themes when discussing their interests. What kind of video games do they like (e.g., all first person shooters?)? What kind of books, TV shows, movies and music do they like? If they all center around violence, this could indicate a problem. Of course, the vast majority of adolescents who play fantasy games or violent video games do not become mass murderers but when this is combined with the other factors discussed, it increases cause for concern.

9. Many (37%) come from broken families where the parents are separated or divorced. This can result in anger, exposure to more family disputes (before or after the separation/divorce), decreased emotional attachment, and fewer adults present to detect when something is going awry with their child. Hribal is reported to come from a close family, however.

10. Weapon of choice: Most (85%) use a gun, with the most common caliber being .22. The most common shotgun gage was 12. Sharp weapons, such as knives and swords were used in some cases. Blunt objects, such as baseball bats and hammers have also been used. Adolescent mass murders usually bring about 2 to 3 weapons to commit the crime, most of which are taken from home or are purchased. This makes it all the more important for health care providers to assess for ease of access to firearms and for parents to make sure that their children do not have access to firearms.

Some of the percentages listed above may be larger or smaller than presented because for some of the variables there was insufficient data to determine their presence for all adolescents. It is important not to focus only one of these factors in isolation. However, the more of these risk factors that are combined together, the greater the risk becomes and should be a cause for concern and mental health intervention. Predicting mass murder in adolescents will always remain a challenge, because it is a very low frequency event.

Reference: Meloy JR1, Hempel AG, Mohandie K, Shiva AA, Gray BT. (2001). J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 40(6):719-28. Offender and offense characteristics of a nonrandom sample of adolescent mass murderers.

Tuesday, April 08, 2014

10 Ways to Get Free Access to Scientific Journal Articles

One question I am often asked is “How can I obtain free copies of peer reviewed scientific journal articles if I do not have access to a medical school library or college/university library?” It is a very good question because the cost to download a single research paper in a scientific journal is often somewhere between $20 and $40.

These costs are often set as a per article price, regardless of length. That is a lot to pay just to read a few pages, especially for health care providers in private practice or a layperson trying to learn more about a health condition affecting a loved one.

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Here are 10 ways to get free copies of research articles, some of which require more work than others. Feel free to post other methods in the comment section.

1. SEARCH PUBMED: PubMed is a free government-run website that contains an archive of over 23 million research citations. Simply type in a search term and click on one of the results. Sometimes, in the search results you will see the words “Free PMC article” or “Free Article” listed. Click on that and it will bring you to the abstract page where on the top right of the page you will see a button that indicates the free article status. Click on the button and the article downloads.

2. USE FREEMEDICAL JOURNALS.COM: Freemedicaljournals.com is a great resource provides an amazing compilation of access to free medical articles, including from some of the most well-respected journals.

3. USE HIGHWIRE: Highwire is another extensive collection of free online full text research articles.

4. SEARCH THE JOURNAL WEBSITE: Sometimes simply searching the journal’s website will show you that the article is available for free. Many journals, including the New England Journal of Medicine and the Journal of the American Medical Association highlight a few free articles a month for casual readers.

5. SEARCH PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONAL WEBSITES: Many journals are published on behalf of a professional association. The name of the organization will be listed on the journal’s home page. For example, The Clinical Neuropsychologist is the journal for the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology (AACN). By going to the AACN homepage and searching for position papers, you will find an entire list of free articles available to you, such as here.

6. CONTACT THE AUTHOR: You can usually find the email address of a study author on the journal article page below the abstract, such as here. Simply send the author a request for a copy of the email and you will usually get a response with a copy very shortly as most researchers are happy to share their work. Can’t find the author’s email in the journal? Then just type the author’s name into a search engine and you can often find the author’s email address listed in the institutional directory of their employer. If no email is listed, try making a phone call to the author for such a request.

7. SEARCH ENGINE CHECK: Sometimes, just typing in the name of the article into a search engine will bring you to a free link that contains the pdf. You will be amazed at what you can find with a quick internet search.

8. JOIN A LISTSERV: Joining a listserv of health-care professionals in your field (such as here) is a great way to learn new things from colleagues. Simply post an email about a topic and an email is sent to all members of the listserv. Request that someone send you a copy of the article and someone is likely to have a copy and will send it to your privately. Listserv managers generally frown upon sending a copy of the article to the entire listserv unless it is already free in the public domain to prevent copyright violations.

9. USE SOCIAL MEDIA: Not a healthcare provider and don’t have access to a listserv? No problem. Join a social media site such as Facebook, Twitter, Google+, Google Groups, or Reddit and ask people interested in the same topic as you to send you a copy of the article if they have it. Again, the article should be sent privately if it is not in the public domain.

10. JOIN YOUR STATE LIBRARY: State libraries contain extensive access to journal articles that are typically not free elsewhere. All you need is a valid state library card, a login code, and you are all set. A good example is the extensive journal collection available at the New York State Library.

Saturday, April 05, 2014

No Need for Viagra Ads During the Final Four

It’s Saturday night, the Final Four is here, and it is the best night of the year for college basketball fans. All of those preseason games, non-conference games, grueling conference games, conference tournament games, and NCAA tournament games eliminated all but 4 out of 351 Division 1 basketball teams vying for the national championship.

Two of the teams in this year’s Final Four come from states where there is no professional basketball team: Connecticut and Kentucky. In these states in particular, basketball fans young and old rally around their team because it brings a sense of community. The players on these teams are treated almost like professional basketball players in their community by the fans. Florida and Wisconsin have their share of ardent young fans as well who follow their teams for state pride, because a relative went to one of the schools, or both. And then there are the children who are basketball fans of other college hoops teams who are staying up for the first game (6:09 pm EST start time) and all of part of the second game (8:49 pm EST start time).

With all of these young children watching these games, Pfizer (the maker of Viagra) and TBS (the station that airs the Final Four) should show more restraint and avoid placing advertisements for erectile dysfunction (ED) during these games. That goes for other ED medication manufacturers as well. There is no need for any parent or other adult to have to answer questions from their children about what the adult terms and themes mean in these commercials.

Sadly, this is nothing new. Democrat Congressman, Jim Moran, had complained in 2009 about these types of ads running in the daytime. He introduced a bill (H.R. 2175) to prevent the broadcasting of such ads between 6:00 am and 10:00 pm. I agree with him. The bill (known as the Families for ED Advertising Decency Act) advised the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to treat such ads as indecent.

The counter-argument is that Pfizer is targeting their ads during times when most men who suffer from ED would be watching. True, but they are also running the ads during a time when most men are probably watching the game with their children or grandchildren. There are many other times and venues (e.g., late night TV, adult-themed media) when men are watching and children should not be watching, where Pfizer can place such ads.

So what ever happened to H.R. 2175? It died in the 111th Congress, likely due to powerful lobbying interests by the pharmaceutical industry. If you care about this issue, you can share this article with the social media buttons below and send this article to your Congressman or Senator and ask that one of them consider reintroducing the bill. I will be doing so as soon as this blog entry is published.

Wednesday, March 26, 2014

The Latest Scoop On Mesothelioma & Its Treatment In The US

Although mesothelioma, the rare and fatal cancel in peritoneum (abdomen) or pleura (chest lining), has leveled off in the United States since the 90s, the prevalence of the disease is still very real.

The prime cause is asbestos exposure; the body is not able to free itself from inhaled asbestos, which triggers physiological reactions resulting in mesothelioma, even decades after first exposure. In fact, a victim may breathe asbestos fibers for many decades before mesothelioma is finally diagnosed.

It is estimated that 2,500 to 3,000 American citizens to be diagnosed as malignant mesothelioma victims in 2014. They also classify mesothelioma in lung cancers that continue be the common cause of cancer deaths in the U.S., accounting for around 50% of overall cancer deaths among males and females.

And due to asbestos exposure decades ago, several are projected to develop the disease in the next several years. The Mesothelioma Center’s advocacy group and website on asbestos informs that incidence of mesothelioma in the U.S. may have peaked near 2010, and the source cites a study which projects approximately 85,000 people in the country to be diagnosed with mesothelioma from 2008 to 2054.

The rise in asbestos litigation

According to the U.S. Government Accountability Office, more than $30 billion have been set aside by companies from mesothelioma victims since the 80s. And between 1982 and 2002, the companies sued increased from 300 to 8,400, while the number of asbestos plaintiffs went from 1,000 to 730,000.

Asbestos litigation has also been classified as the mass tort litigation longest running in U.S. history. Thousands of lawsuits have been filed over the last decade, with many resulting in settlements or verdicts awarding $1,000,000 and in some cases, even more to the litigants.

Plaintiffs also continue to face challenges because of the long-latency period associated with asbestos-based diseases and mesothelioma law varying state by state. Many states allow three years to file a claim after diagnosis while others only allow a year.

Each case is different, so it is important for current and future plaintiffs to know how to file a mesothelioma lawsuit as soon as possible after the diagnosis. Some judges dealing with the case will also speed up the process knowing that mesothelioma is life-threatening, and requires significant financial resources for health treatment.

New research and treatments

Research is always ongoing when it comes to mesothelioma treatment.

PDT (photodynamic therapy) is a new technique being used for treatment in several clinics: a drug (light-activated) is injected into the patient’s vein, and it spreads across the body to collect cancer cells. Days later, after surgery, a red light is inserted into the chest cavity causing a chemical change that triggers the drug and kills the cancer cells. The approach may lead to few side effects because the drug is only activated in parts exposed to the light, instead of the entire body.

Gene therapy is another new treatment being tested in mesothelioma cases. It involves adding new genes (special viruses) into cancer cells so they are easier to kill. A version of this approach includes a virus hosting a gene that triggers the immune system to kill the cancer cells.

Given the circumstances, mesothelioma health effects are expected to increase in coming years. Victims who take legal action immediately after diagnosis and stay updated with treatment options will increase their chances of adequate compensation and recovery.

This is a post by Nancy Evans.

Saturday, January 18, 2014

MedFriendly Publishes the Most Comprehensive Entry on Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

On 1/18/14, MedFriendly, LLC, published the most comprehensive online review on Stevens-Johsnon syndrome. Stevens-Johnson syndrome is a rare but serious condition in which the skin and at least two surfaces of the mucous membranes (or the mucous membranes only) are damaged by a severe reaction to infection or medication.

A mucous membrane is one of four major types of thin sheets of tissue that line or covers various parts of the body. Detailed information is provided on the causes of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, diagnostic methods, treatment methods, and much more

The Stevens-Johnson syndrome entry is the latest in hundreds of easy to understand entries available for free at MedFriendly.com. All entries on MedFriendly are written in an easy to understand format, with all complex terms defined within the same entry. This prevents the reader from needing to do extra research to understand what the writer is trying to convey. All entries are written on a single page, exposing the reader to fewer ads. Please share this link with others, bookmark MedFriendly and the MedFriendly Blog, and follow us on the MedFriendly Facebook and Twitter pages.

Friday, January 10, 2014

Pharmacogenetics To Redefine Medical Diagnosis

The age of genetic testing made its impact when the human genome sequencing project was completed in 2003. From that point onwards, the understanding of drug behavior and how different therapies can be modulated has continued to evolve.

More specifically, genetic testing today refers to the detection of mutations that define a therapeutic response in humans. Pharmogenomics has also provided a key insight into the understanding of disease initiation.

A recent study conducted at the University of Washington School of Medicine points out a gene PON1, which plays an important role in cardiac activity. Previously, physicians thought that the high density lipoprotein being cardio-protective would play a role in cardiovascular risk stratification.

However, the findings reveal that there is a liver based enzyme, encoded by the gene PON1, which protect against a number of human diseases. Using genetic testing, the physician can know the activity level of the enzyme and which therapy would best suit it.

Popularizing resources

A major trend that has allowed pharmacogenetics to establish itself is that of bioinformatics. Bioinformatics uses the data of DNA and proteins in living organisms and modulates them in the form of simulated drugs that physicians can administer.

An example for professionals in this regard is the ExPASy bioinformatics resource portal, where the doctor or a pharmaceutical researcher can check the secondary structure of any protein, and effectively decide which drug would work best.

There are also conduit resources that are helping healthcare professionals to use medication monitoring and manage the medication therapy of patients. According to www.millenniumlabs.com, the use of advanced technology by these resources, combined with research and education, helps doctors and relevant professionals personalize treatment plans, improving patient outcome and safety.

Among the many benefits of such an approach, two are most important. First is the fact that the data can be used to decide whether the drug being given is effective or not. Enzymatic detoxification has been proven in a number of studies as the best method to know the efficacy of a drug.

Secondly, the drugs that are given in cancer therapy are harmful to normal body cells. However, using molecular medicine, which is based on the understanding of genetic behavior, targeted therapy can be selected.

The pharmaceutical sector and healthcare professionals are looking forward to the cure of complex diseases such as cancer and autoimmune disorders. The existent mode of treatment focuses on reducing the damage or managing the symptoms.

However, genetic intervention and therapies such as siRNA provide a new avenue of hope, which means that pharmacogenomics can become a dominant field.

The underlying principle in this approach is that the alteration of gene expression is responsible for disease. Genes encode proteins through RNA as per the central dogma of molecular biology. By inhibiting RNA formation, the formation of toxic proteins in the body can be inhibited. This is an excellent approach, which provides a promising discovery strategy.

It is now up to the doctors to utilize the effectiveness of pharmacogenomics to help reform healthcare.

The above entry is a guest blog post.

Wednesday, January 08, 2014

Malingering: Why Healthcare Providers Continue to Keep their Heads inthe Sand

Malingering is the intentional production of false or grossly exaggerated physical or psychological symptoms motivated by external incentives such as avoiding work, obtaining financial compensation, evading criminal prosecution, avoiding military duty, or obtaining drugs (APA,1994). In layman’s terms, it is lying or significantly exaggerating in order to get something. 

Malingering is a major problem for the healthcare system and society because:

a) It decreases access to needed healthcare services (e.g., doctor appointments, diagnostic tests, therapy sessions) for patients with genuine health problems. This can delay diagnosis and reduce treatment onset and treatment effectiveness. 

b) It leads to billions of dollars in wasted health care resources for unnecessary doctor visits, diagnostic tests, and treatments (e.g., medications, therapy sessions). This leads to increased insurance premiums.

c) It leads to billions of dollars in wasted tax dollars towards fraudulent disability awards (e.g., Social Security Disability, military disability benefits). Disability and compensation benefits awarded through private workers compensation companies, no-fault insurance companies, and other private companies are a further cause of wasted funds and increased insurance premiums.

d) It leads to billions of dollars wasted in legal costs and settlements for companies defending themselves against fraudulent claims. Many companies opt to pay to settle a case rather than pay the larger cost of mounting a legal defense.

Malingering is a topic that I have spent a great deal of time writing about. For example, in August 2012, a book I co-edited on the topic was published. The title is Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Symptom Validity Assessment and Malingering. One of the chapters provides suggestions to help physicians and non-neuropsychologist healthcare providers detect poor effort and symptom exaggeration that can be a result of malingering. In September 2012, I was interviewed for a story by amednews.com entitled, Detecting Deception: How to Handle a Malingering Patient, which aimed to raise physician awareness about the issue. I have continued to publish on this topic in peer reviewed academic journals and international lectures but have not written about it on my blog since 2011 and figured it was time for an update due to some recent developments.

As I showed in the opening chapter of my book with numerous tables, there has been a significant increase in publications (e.g., research articles, books) about malingering, in addition to legal cases mentioning the word. Thus, it is not as if healthcare providers, insurance companies, and government officials are unaware that the problem exists.

Despite this increased knowledge of the topic, in the most recent update of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5), the word “malingering” has been removed from the index. The DSM-5 is a guide that many healthcare providers use to diagnose mental disorders. In DSM-5, malingering is no longer listed as an issue that needs to be ruled out when a patient is suspected of having a somatoform disorder (now called a “somatic symptom disorder”).

As it has traditionally been conceptualized, a somatoform disorder is a condition in which one develops physical symptoms in response to psychological distress. While these patients may exaggerate, the exaggeration is not done for external gain (e.g., to win a lawsuit). In reality, some patients malinger and have somatoform disorders but in some cases the distinction between the two is an important one to make. While malingering does remain in the text of DSM-V, it is buried within it on pages 726 and 727 and difficult to find even if you are specifically searching for it.

I do not believe that the omission of malingering from the index and other sections of the DSM-V was an accident. As I described in my December 2011 blog entry on this topic, there are many reasons why physicians and other healthcare providers are motivated to ignore the topic of malingering. These reasons include not wanting to deal with retaliatory false complaints lodged against them for exposing it, the uncomfortable nature of discussing the topic with the patient, extreme patient advocacy by healthcare providers, being overly trusting of patient self-report, and not wanting to cause the patient a loss of financial benefits.

While I still believe that these are reasons that healthcare providers often ignore malingering, there are additional reasons that all involve financial incentives…but this time for the healthcare provider. Specifically:

a) If a healthcare provider labels a patient as malingering, the insurance company will likely not pay for additional costly treatments and medical tests. That potentially can lead to losses of thousands to millions of dollars of treatment revenue. For example, hospitals make a great deal of money from diagnostic tests (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging), weekly therapy sessions, and pain medication injections.

b) Due to healthcare reform, hospitals will now receive more money from the government if they have higher patient satisfaction ratings. Identifying malingering results in lower patient satisfaction scores and would then lead to less money for the hospital.

c) Some healthcare providers may be knowingly contributing to malingering by signing off on fraudulent disability applications. This presumably involves some type of kickback fee for enabling the fraudulent claims.

As an example of healthcare providers enabling malingering, a large scheme was recently discovered in which about 1,000 people (mostly police and firefighters) defrauded the Social Security Administration (SSA) for disability benefits, claiming mental illness from the September 11th attacks. In this way, malingerers often prey on other’s sympathies and trust to try and avoid detection.  They know that it will be politically incorrect for anyone to challenge a disability claim based on terrorism exposure, particularly if they were in a trusted societal occupational role (e.g., cop, firefighter, corrections officer). 

It was a well-organized scheme in which people were coached on how to fail memory tests, how to  fake panic attacks, how to dress for appointments, and how to build a false medical record for about a year before applying for disability. The cost to society? 400 million dollars. And that is just for these 1,000 cases. That is a drop in the bucket compared to how much of this is taking place throughout the country.
How were they eventually caught? Instinctively, you may think that the doctors figured it out.

However, that was not the case. It finally took two Social Security Administration investigators to become suspicious of how it was that people documented as mentally  incapacitated were able to maintain a pistol license. It was a significant discrepancy between self-reported problems and real –world behaviors that did not make sense, which is common in malingering.  This led to monitoring of these people’s social media accounts and more in depth file reviews.  The review found that patients claiming total disability were pictured doing all sorts of activities that they should not have been able to do if their disability claims were accurate such as flying helicopters, riding motorcycles, and holding separate jobs. Reports from undercover agents and intercepted phone calls were the proverbial icing on the cake.

The Manhattan district attorney, Cyrus Vance, was quoted as saying about those indicted that “Their brazenness was shocking.” In a way, it does seem shocking at first. But when one stops to think about it, was their behavior really so shocking when they know that no health care provider will say they are malingering? It is unknown at this point if any of the health care providers actually knew of this scheme,  but one of the ringleaders indicted (Joseph Minerva) was allegedly specifically tasked with finding psychiatrists and psychologists to diagnose conditions that would lead to a determination of disability.

For Minerva to pull this off would require him to have done one of two things (or both): a) find healthcare providers who knew about the scheme and would write false notes in exchange for kickbacks, b) find healthcare providers who were na├»ve enough to believe everything presented to them. The latter would have also been laden with financial incentives due to an increased referral base.  It is significantly problematic that the healthcare providers in these cases were completely fooled by over 1,000 patients and that they presumably did not identify a single case themselves as malingering.

While some may say that it is easy to Monday morning quarterback these cases, the reality is that many of these malingering cases could have been detected by healthcare providers...if all they did was look. In fact, no field in healthcare has developed more sophisticated techniques to identify malingering than clinical neuropsychology, although techniques do exist in other fields. Utilizing healthcare professionals who use scientifically reliable and valid techniques to detect feigned mental disabilities is important because in these cases, the claimants decided to try to fake mental disabilities, not physical ones. It should also be noted that although some of these patients reportedly had genuine physical problems, that does not automatically translate to valid mental problems. However, malingerers will often use a valid condition in one area to try to gain credibility of a feigned disability in another area. As an example, the thought process of the malingerer goes something like this, “If my leg and arm were broken then surely I cannot be suspected of lying about having posttraumatic stress disorder.”

It is important to note that it was the field of clinical neuropsychology that raised the awareness of the SSA to the problem of malingering. Initially, due to numerous misconceptions, the SSA decided to no longer fund the use of techniques that can help identify malingering in a ruling on September 13, 2012. However, after consultation with national neuropsychological organizations, U.S. Senator Tom Coburn wrote a letter to the SSA urging reconsideration of this policy based on the weight of the current scientific evidence. The Social Security Administration responded that they would seek external expertise to evaluate their policy on tests that can help identify malingering when determining disability (Congressional Report No. A-08-13-23094, 2013). This recent scheme that was uncovered should provide further evidence that Senator Coburn is correct and that the use of such techniques should be funded by the SSA. Click here so see Senator Coburn’s interview on 60-minutes, where he goes into detail regarding the costs of malingering to society.

An additional recommendation that I and others in this area have is for healthcare providers to be afforded administrative and/or legal protections against complaints by identified malingerers, so long as the determination of malingering can be defended using currently accepted scientific standards. Until that happens (which may be never), patients who report mental disabilities in the context of a disability claim, litigation, compensation-seeking, seeking academic accommodations, seeking prescription drugs of potential abuse (e.g., pain killers, stimulants), who have a potential desire to avoid work, military service, school, or prosecution, should be required to undergo a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation by an evaluator who uses scientifically reliable and valid malingering detection methods. The results of such evaluations need to be incorporated by other health care providers to reduce the financial burdens on the healthcare system and on society.

Board certified neuropsychologists can be located at the American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology and the American Board of Professional Neuropsychology websites. Healthcare providers need to be reminded that they are supposed to be scientific-practitioners first (basing diagnoses and treatment planning on reliable and valid objective information) and to be patient advocates second. Unfortunately, for too many healthcare providers, patient advocacy has superseded the scientific method and now we are all paying the price...literally and figuratively.

Friday, December 20, 2013

Making the Switch to a Healthier Lifestyle

The following is a guest blog entry. 

I think it came to me about a year ago. I was sitting on the couch going over my finances. It didn't take me very long to realize that a great deal of my monthly earnings were going towards bad habits - cigarettes, alcohol, junk food, etc. The hit this was having on my wallet was nothing in comparison to what it was doing to my body, however. Still young, I had age on my side, but the lack of energy and slow accumulation of flab that came along with my lifestyle were beginning to rear their ugly heads.

Deciding to Make a Change

There's no getting around the fact that guilt can have a dramatic impact on life experience. As time went on, I began to feel increasingly bad each time I would go to the store for a pack of cigarettes or a case of beer. This was becoming no more than a raw habit, and I knew I needed to make a change. It started off slowly as I'd say to myself "maybe I'll only have one or two drinks tonight instead of going crazy like I normally do on a Friday."

I'd tell people that I was looking to make some changes in my life, but no one in my circle of friends really believed me. They all said that "moderation" is a tease and that the only way to really achieve my goals would be to quit everything altogether. I try to think that life is quite a bit less black and white than this, however, and it actually angered me that they felt this way. It was at that moment that I decided I was going to take control of my life and make the changes I wanted to see happen.

Setting Things Into Motion

One thing that I needed to make clear for myself was that I was going to have a way to track my progress, so I set up a spreadsheet and decided that each day I would journal about my goals and keep track of the changes I'd made. I had one column listing how much alcohol I'd allot myself in a given week and was determined to stick to it. I had a "notes" section that would allow me to list small changes that would inevitably make a huge difference in my overall health. I wanted to go to my spreadsheet as soon as I made the move to switch to an electronic cigarette or substitute fatty foods for organic fruits and vegetables. Being a detail-oriented person, it was essential that I had a way of tracking the changes I was making in my life, and it worked.

As time went on, I started taking on more and more tasks to help push my life in the right direction. Once I had changed my diet and quit smoking traditional cigarettes, I successfully lowered my alcohol intake and started going to the gym. I knew that if I didn't start slow with the latter that I would fall off quickly, so I stuck to 3x per week with the intention of ramping things up as time went on. Much to my delight, it took a mere few weeks until I was able to push this up to 4x per week and then 5x per week after that. It seemed as if the more I took my time with all of this, the faster I was seeing change.

The Takeaway

In the end, I realized that the one thing that was keeping me from living a healthier lifestyle was pretty easy to pinpoint; I needed a reason. It was my friends' doubts that really caused me to rise to the occasion, and I can't thank them enough today for the differences that one conversation made in my life.

Wednesday, December 04, 2013

MedFriendly Publishes the Most Comprehensive Entry on Stress Incontinence

On 12/4/13, MedFriendly, LLC, published the most comprehensive online review on stress incontinence. Stress incontinence is the most common form of urinary incontinence (involuntary or uncontrollable urine loss). It occurs when a physical movement or activity increases pressure inside the abdomen, which places involuntary pressure on the urinary bladder. Detailed information is provided on the causes of stress incontinence, diagnostic methods, treatment methods, and much more

The stress incontinence entry is the latest in hundreds of easy to understand entries available for free at MedFriendly.com. All entries on MedFriendly are written in an easy to understand format, with all complex terms defined within the same entry. This prevents the reader from needing to do extra research to understand what the writer is trying to convey. All entries are written on a single page, exposing the reader to fewer ads. Please share this link with others, bookmark MedFriendly and the MedFriendly Blog, and follow us on the MedFriendly Facebook and Twitter pages.

Friday, November 15, 2013

5 Tips to Help You Live Longer

Wouldn't it be great to spin back the hands of time and get an extended look at life? Well, although there may not be a way to go back in time, there is a way to extend it. Check out these five tips to help you live a longer and happier life.

Exercise More

Exercising not only promotes good physical health, it will also help you live longer.  Daily exercising is highly recommended, even if it is just a swift walk. It will reduce your risk of heart disease and promote the release of endorphins that perpetuate happiness.

A recent study shows that for every 1 minute of exercise you can extend your life up to 7 extra minutes. This is a small investment for something as valuable as time. So if you want to live a longer and happier life, then take the time to put fitness first.

Eat Better

Improving your diet is a fast and easy way to extend your life. Heart disease is the leading cause of death in America and is easily avoided by implementing a proper diet. There are several different kinds of diets, and each one can have its benefits. Here are a few healthy eating tips to consider when revamping your diet.

Minimize Gluten in your diet- Gluten; found in wheat, barley, and other grains, is an inflammatory food that agitates your intestines. Many people are actually unknowingly allergic to gluten.

• Increase the intake of fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables are filled with healthy fibers and antioxidants. They can even help to lower the risk of heart disease by up to 76 percent.

• Monitor your fat intake. The kinds of fat you chose to put into your body can play a large role in your well-being. You should lower your intake of trans fat and substitute it for omega-3 fish oil when possible.
Your diet plays a huge role in the quality and length of your life. It can reduce the likelihood that you'll contract major diseases and perpetuate a healthy and happy lifestyle that will add several years to your life.

Get Enough Rest

Although you may think that a lot of sleep means less time living, it is actually proven that a substantial amount of quality sleep can help you live longer.

There are several studies that suggest anywhere between six and nine hours each night is ideal. There is no specific time frame, rather it suggests that you shouldn't hit the snooze button. That time when you wake up naturally is when you should start your day.

One of the best ways to improve your sleeping habits is to schedule an earlier bedtime and stick to it. After some time you will begin to fall into a sleep cycle that will become second nature. Not only is the quantity of sleep important, but you should also consider the quality of sleep. Once you improve the quality of sleep you will be on your way to a longer and happier life.

Drink Moderately

In small doses alcohol can actually provide health benefits. One study suggests that there is a tie between moderate drinking and a healthy heart. However, the keyword is moderately.

Drinking heavily can lead to obesity, dependency, abuse, and even depression. However, when practiced responsibly there are some very real health benefits to drinking. It can reduce blood pressure, decrease blood clotting, and even increase good cholesterol while eliminating bad cholesterol. So if you are someone who enjoys drinking, practice moderation and it can actually help you live longer.
Reduce Your Stress

There are several studies conducted proving that reducing stress in your life will help you live longer and more fulfilled. Having an active sexual life can be one of the easiest and more enjoyable ways to accomplish this. It can lead to lower blood pressure and protect against stroke or heart disease.

Being optimistic is another way to ease stress. People who exhibit more positivity actually have a 50 percent decrease in risk of early death compared to those who are pessimistic. In order to help improve the quality and longevity of your life, reduce the stress.

There is no hiding the fact that many people would do anything they could to live longer. Many people even devoted their life in the search of the Fountain of Youth, said to ensure invincibility. Although, these tips won't give you invincibility, they can help extend your life and improve the overall quality of it.

Author Bio:
Writer Molly is a prolific writer who spends all her time on the Internet writing about everything that fancies her. She is a well sought after guest writer who can write across all niches including, but not limited to, tech, gadgets, travel, finance, education, health, etc. You can find her on Twitter as @WriterMollyP.

Wednesday, October 30, 2013

Tips on Adopting EMR for Your Office

Like any new software, EMR and EHR can be difficult to implement in a small practice. You have to get your staff acquainted with the system, and work through any kinks they may find. Along the way, you’ll also likely to need support in-house and over the phone.

There are shortcuts to find and your staff will need to adjust to a new method of doing things. The end result will be to personalize patient care and, actually, there may be Federal incentives for you to implement EMRs in your office.

Start Small

Your staff will benefit most from small introductions that get them interacting with EMR software. Start by ditching the photocopier and having staff enter patient information into your electronic medical record software. Inquire with your provider about training documentation, which is often included with the costs you pay for the software, and arrange for staff to spend an hour each day going over training materials and interacting with the software.

Break your staff up into teams that are responsible for different aspects of patient care. Depending on the size of our practice, you may have someone who handles patient intake, and someone else who handles prescription data.

Make sure everyone in your office understands how to retrieve medical records. It also helps to designate staff to go over each other’s work and check it for accuracy.

Designate a Go-To Person

Choose a member of your team to thoroughly train on the program and let that person break the software.

You need someone technologically capable, as well as someone who can patiently work through troubleshooting. Designate this person as a point of contact, and refer all EMR challenges to her.

Find the Shortcuts

Create a master list of shortcuts that cut down on keystrokes and clicks to get to what the staff needs.

Simple keystrokes like copy (Ctrl+C) and paste (Ctrl+V) will help save time. You can usually press “Tab” to cycle through the various text fields and speed up data entry, instead of clicking a mouse.

Encourage information sharing on free cloud services like Google Docs or Microsoft SkyDrive. Have staff maintain spreadsheets and documents online for keystrokes and tips. Creating a central knowledge base will give staff a safe space to learn more about the EMR if they choose.

Have a Backup Solution

Keep any patient data on a local hard drive, an external hard drive and in the cloud. You can purchase a reasonably large external hard drive or NAS server from any online retailer for less than $300. Cloud storage can be pricey, depending on what you need to store, as they often charge by what you need. The advantage is you pay for what you need, but you will end up spending more money over time. You will also need to scale those services as your practice grows, which may entail switching providers or upgrading plans.

If possible, have your IT staff create an automated backup system. Smaller practices without an IT staff should consider outsourcing the work to someone from the Web. Web based EMR applications typically have a backup system in place that requires almost no input on your part beyond initial setup.

Other Tips

Use templates and pre-written statements to fill in common patient symptoms and save time. Once your staff has entered the patient’s prescription, you can tell the patient that her prescription has already been sent to the pharmacist, which is great for patient satisfaction.

Government incentives, like the Medicare EMR Incentive program can help ease the transition with some extra cash. In the case of the Medicare EMR, you receive $44,000 over 5 years, which can cover the costs of purchasing the system or paying for training.

The above guest post is a guest blog entry.

Saturday, October 26, 2013

Importance Of The New Breath Test and Medical Coding Training in Diabetic Care

According to the U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 26 million people are affected with certain conditions and nearly 5.7 million are un-diagnosed. Diagnosis for conditions such as diabetes and hypoglycemia is dependent on several tests, which are mostly invasive or cost intensive (due to frequent use).

However, an alternative has been developed that relies on normal human breath to monitor diabetes.

Researchers have known for a long time that people who suffer from diabetes have a characteristic fruity odor which increases at the time of glucose deficiency. This fruit smell comes from a compound known as acetone. The acetone breath test is conventionally used in the status quo to determine alcohol toxicity of drunk drivers.

Background to the test

A hallmark feature of diabetes is that due to lack of insulin, the metabolic pathway of the body is affected. This leads to conversion of fatty acids to ketones. The increased levels of ketones such as acetone cause acidity in the blood, which is medically termed as ketosis or ketoacidosis.

Thanks to advancement in biosensors and nanotechnology, the acetone biomarker can be used for diagnosis of diabetes, remarkably lowering its costs of detection.

Benefits to the medical community


The obvious benefit is for the patient, but other important stakeholders are professionals in the healthcare community. The large scale distribution of this test means development of a new line of diagnostics, and possibly a new specialization, in the discipline of ‘breath diagnostics’.

Moreover, students who want to pursue successful healthcare careers but are financially constrained can target this area in an integrated manner. Careers such as diagnostics, coding and technician based courses are dependent on innovation in the field.

Online education courses and medical coding training provide students ample incentive to pursue coding and diagnostic careers while simultaneously gaining career rewarding certificates. On an administrative level, medical coding training will strengthen medical databases. On the macro level, new diagnostics help researchers analyze how different compounds produced within the human breath have a role in pathogenesis.

For instance, researchers are also evaluating how acetone and volatile compounds (VOCs) are characteristic for indicating respiratory disorders during diabetes. This is important since diabetes affected patients are often riddled with co-morbidities (i.e. other diseases arising from the condition).

Sol-Gel Model

Researchers at University of Pittsburgh have been able to develop a model of the breath analyzer that can be used at a global scale. While there are other models in production, this one gathers attention due to its interesting design.

The model successfully employs principle of physics and nanotechnology to good use. It uses titanium dioxide: commonly found in cosmetic products. This compound is merged with small carbon nanotubes, which have a very minute diameter. From then on, it transforms into a sensor.

The titanium dioxide in the nanotube has light illuminating properties, while the carbon nanotubes have electrical properties. The sensor can be activated with light to produce an electrical charge. Therefore, the acetone vapors in the human breath can be detected to very small limits.

Since diabetes patients have to monitor their glucose level routinely, this test becomes an ideal alternative to cost intensive diagnostics.

Financial aspect

Living with diabetes is a financial burden, especially with respect to the current economy. To monitor diabetes, a lot of people rely on glucose meters. The majority of patients pay through their insurance providers for the device. Sadly, the coverage would limit the kind of model or the strip that you can use.

So with such constraints, the breath test for diabetes comes as a very viable option. Especially with a device that is basically a biosensor that doesn’t need to be replaced (like strips), it makes a lot of sense.

Secondly, this test is not only beneficial from the screening aspect, it also helps in diabetes management. By monitoring routinely without having to fear for cost, the test can assist patients in streamlining their glucose levels. The breath test also falls in line with the innovative the A1C test.

The levels of acetone in diabetic patients also give a comparative analysis on a number of indicators. Ketoacidosis in some cases can lead to a coma or death. Furthermore, increased acetone levels would indicate serious electrolyte losses in your body. The most important of these are sodium and potassium.

This leads to the patients developing abdominal pain, excessive stress levels and nausea. The breath test can immediately point out such indicators.

In these ways, the breath test for diabetes would make life easier for diabetic patients across the globe.

The above entry is a guest blog entry.

Monday, October 07, 2013

Medical Procedure Financing: Saying Yes to More Patients

It’s no secret that the 2008 credit crisis hit the medical field hard, and even five years later, a lack of access to financing options can create a barrier between doctor and patient. Day after day, doctors are forced to turn down care for solely financial reasons.

Whereas third-party financing companies once served as an effective ally by loaning patients money to afford procedures they desperately need, tightening approval rates have slashed the number of leads doctors can accept. When middleman financiers are employed, it is entirely possible that only 20-25% of interested patients can end up booking a surgery.  Not to mention that the approval often comes with a 6-10% discount fee paid to the financier.

For doctors looking to expand their business and offer care to more patients, the third-party financing paradigm is looking less and less viable. It’s no wonder many have taken matters into their own hands by setting up their own in-house financing programs. If executed correctly, an in-house financing program can grow the business in terms of the number of procedures performed, while saving money paid in third-party discounts, and even create new revenue streams as interest comes in on monthly payments.

While providing loans in house means taking on a bit of risk, implementing smart payment plan practices can greatly reduce said risks. For example, say a patient seeks a $6,000 procedure, $1,500 of which covers hard costs (such as the surgery center or office overhead, etc.). If the practice requires a down payment of at least $1,500, they’ll still be covered even if the patient defaults immediately after the surgery.

If insurance can cover a portion of the procedure, the numbers become even more favorable. Say the patient is left with a $2,000 co-pay on the above procedure, and can’t pay out of pocket. Since the insurance is already paying $4,000 — covering our hard costs, and then some — a payment plan can be used to cover the gap. Since hard costs are covered, the down payment can be more modest, but it’s still prudent to collect something incase of a default.

The above solutions are both possible with third-party financing, but keep in mind a third party financier will often require 6-10% of the entire payment, including that crucial down payment. Thus, if a $6,000 procedure requires a $1,500 down payment, the practice is required to pay out $360-$600 to their financing company. And that’s only if the patient is approved for financing in the first place. While the practice assumes slightly more risk by extending their own credit to the patient, many doctors we’ve spoken to assert that the immense upsurge in their number of office visits more than made up for it.

The added administrative work that comes with tracking and billing payment plans can be a concern as well, but modern advances in patient-financing software takes care of this process by automating all the billing along with providing tools to keep patients on track.

With the proper tools and framework, many doctors are seeing in-house financing software as a realistic alternative to traditional methods, allowing them to say “yes” to more procedures, while growing their practice at a comfortable rate.

The above entry is a guest blog entry.

Friday, September 20, 2013

Psychological Harm Caused by Alcohol Abuse

Alcohol abuse doesn’t just lead to the physical dangers that many are well versed on, but it can also lead to many psychological dangers that are just as frightening, if not more so. Bankole Johnson knows the psychological dangers of alcohol addiction all too well.

He currently heads the psychiatry department at the University of Maryland Medical Center.

These types of dangers can lead to actual physical problems as well, so it’s best to identify what they are and avoid them to ensure that you have a bright future laid out ahead of you. So what are these psychological dangers?

Every emotion you have is exaggerated


Sure, there are people that act out happily and show affection when they drink, but it can be to the point where it is too much to bear and makes for awkward situations. Every emotion you feel at the time of drinking is blown up like a picture into a poster.

People that decide to drink when they are angry are more likely to lash out in violent behavior once they have abused alcohol. If you are feeling down or depressed, drinking is only going to make it that much worse and can lead to an emotional breakdown.

It’s normal to have emotions, it is what makes us human. Unless you want those emotions on display for everyone to see, though, then drinking would be a bad idea.

Addiction is a psychological danger

When you become addicted to alcohol, it can be all you think about. How to get your next drink seems more important than remembering birthdays, going to work or going out for a jog. That type of crippling thinking and feeling is addiction.

When nothing else seems as important to you as opening the next bottle, it’s a serious problem. Many associate addiction as physically ailing for a substance, but it is just as much psychological.

Judgment impairment can be dangerous


People are more daring after a few drinks, but not always in a good way. There is a large difference between the person that has one drink with dinner and the person that can put away an entire case.

The worst decision of the night for the person that had just the one drink with food might be a dessert that doesn’t set well. The other person though opens themselves up to a multitude of possibly devastating decisions.

Whether you decide to drive your car, pick a fight with someone at the bar or any other dangerous decision, it can be fatal. Alcohol abuse and impaired judgment go hand in hand, and the consequences are never good.

Long term effects

The person that goes over their limit a bit just once and the person that does it with regularity will both face short term effects, but the latter is much more likely to experience the long term psychological effects.

The list of long term effects is not pretty to look at, either. Depression, loss of relationships with others and alcohol dependence are all crippling psychological dangers.

The more you abuse alcohol, the more likely that these types of dangers are to come to fruition. That sounds like a list of problems that anyone would want to avoid.

Violence

Alcohol is a depressant, so it is known to cause erratic mood swings. It is also known that physical violence is tops on the list of something you can do to someone. Loved ones, friends, complete strangers, anyone.
This isn’t limited to just typical physical violence as well, but sexual violence. The person that abuses alcohol is more likely to lash out with these types of behaviors, which is a frightening thought.

The above entry is a guest blog entry.

Tuesday, September 17, 2013

Plastic Surgery: MedFriendly's Newest Entry

On 9/17/13, MedFriendly, LLC, published a comprehensive online review on plastic surgery. Plastic surgery is a medical specialty that fixes the form and function of some part of the body involving the skin. Detailed information is provided on various plastic surgery techniques, the history of plastic surgery, and the shocking case of Hang Mioku.

The plastic surgery entry is the latest in hundreds of easy to understand entries available for free at MedFriendly.com. All entries on MedFriendly are written in an easy to understand format, with all complex terms defined within the same entry. This prevents the reader from needing to do extra research to understand what the writer is trying to convey. All entries are written on a single page, exposing the reader to fewer ads. Please share this link with others, bookmark MedFriendly and the MedFriendly Blog, and follow us on the MedFriendly Facebook and Twitter pages.

Saturday, September 14, 2013

Egg Donor Agencies: Options After Ovary Removal

In 2013, Angelina Jolie announced that she’s had a double mastectomy as a preventative measure, based on the results of the BRAC Analysis test. Ms. Jolie’s decision not only put the BRCA1 gene, and the BRAC Analysis test, in the spotlight; it also opened a dialogue about other forms of preventative surgery.

In fact, Ms. Jolie, who has a strong family history of breast cancer and ovarian cancer, is even considering having her ovaries removed as a preventative measure.

Removing the Ovaries

Removing the ovaries, or an oophorectomy, is not a new procedure in the prevention and treatment of cancer. The ovaries produce estrogen and other female hormones, and certain types of breast cancer are highly reactive to estrogen. In women who have these types of breast cancer, the oophorectomy is often used as a means of slowing down the growth and spread of the cancerous cells.

In women who do not have breast cancer, but have the BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, removing the ovaries not only prevents the onset of ovarian cancer, it could prevent the onset of certain types of breast cancer.

The doctor could remove the ovaries and the fallopian tubes—the tubes that carry the eggs to the uterus--but leave the uterus intact. Or, he could remove the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries in what is called a total hysterectomy.

Oophorectomy Considerations

Unfortunately, once you remove your ovaries, you can no longer have children. Not only will you no longer produce eggs, you won’t produce all of the hormones you need to support a pregnancy. If you have already had all the children you want, that might not be an issue; but for a woman, of child-bearing age, who has never had children, removing the ovaries closes that door forever.

Luckily, thanks to advances in egg collection and storage, as well as hormone replacement therapy, a woman who needs to have an oophorectomy could still have children. Her two best options for having children after the oophorectomy are donor eggs and fertility preservation.

Organizations like My Egg Bank act as egg donor agencies and fertility preservation centers.

Egg Donor Agencies

As egg donor agencies, these organizations harvest eggs from healthy donors. The agencies thoroughly screen the donors, including genetic counseling, family health histories, and testing for genetic diseases.

Once the donor clears the screening, the agency then has the donor take a series of medications designed to stimulate egg production, then harvests and freezes the eggs for future use.

The recipient would receive the eggs by applying to the donor agency to become a patient. After the application process, the bank will provide the recipient with basic information about the donor eggs that are available. This information includes genetic and race information about the donor, and even photos of the donor from early childhood.

The photos give the recipient an idea of what the donor, and by extension the child, might look like without compromising the identity of the donor. This way, the recipient can choose a donor who closely resembles herself, so that the child will be more likely to share similar traits with her family.

If the recipient has a uterus, and the hormones necessary to support a pregnancy, she could opt to have the eggs fertilized by her partner and implanted into her own uterus. If she does not have a uterus, or does not have the hormonal support, she would use a surrogate to carry the fetus.

Fertility Preservation Centers

As a fertility preservation center, the agency would collect the eggs from the recipient before she undergoes an oophorectomy. As with the egg donors, the recipient might need to take medication to stimulate egg production. However, if she has a hormone-sensitive breast cancer, the agency may opt to avoid using hormone-based medications and simply collect whatever eggs they can without them.

Chemotherapy and radiation therapy can damage the ovaries. In the case of the preexisting cancer, the agency would also need to harvest the eggs before the patient begins treatment, or as soon as possible after.

Once the agency has harvested the eggs, they freeze the eggs and store them until the recipient is ready to use them. 

Cost

The cost varies by facility, and depends on a variety of factors. In-vitro fertilization (IVF) with a donor egg could cost as much as $25,000, not including the cost of medications. It could cost as much as $500 per year to store an egg in an egg bank. Some egg storage facilities, like My Egg Bank, require a non-refundable deposit, and offer financing for the remainder of the cost.

If you are faced with the decision to have an oophorectomy, either as a preventative measure or to treat an existing condition--and you want to have children in the future--IVF with donor eggs, and fertility preservation could be well worth the cost.

The above entry is a guest blog entry.

Friday, September 13, 2013

Does Your Child Need Braces? 3 Ways To Find Out

Determining that your child needs braces or can do without them can be difficult. Children commonly develop teeth at varying rates and primary teeth don’t always help in locating the adult teeth.

A report shows that around 3 million in Canada and U.S. wear braces. While there’s no exact period for when the child may require braces, there are some ways that indicate the time is near.

Identifying the need for braces

1.  Bad/incorrect bites
Ask your child if he/she has any difficulty in chewing. You can also check for cavities as they are also a sign of bad bites. Some types of bad bites include deep overbite, underbite and open bite.

You can start by comparing the position of upper front teeth to the lower teeth. If the front teeth overlap the lower, it is a sign of a deep overbite. Another indication is that the upper teeth’s biting edges will be touching the gum tissue of lower front.

On the other hand, if the jaws are not in the appropriate position and the lower teeth are overlapping the upper, it is an underbite. Open bite is when the lower and upper front teeth aren’t meeting when the child is biting, and it can also cause problem in the child’s speech. According to Dr. Ron Markey, an orthodontist from Vancouver, delaying braces can lead to risks if the teeth are left unattended, even though the risks may take several years to become prominent.

2.  Spacing/crowding problems

The child may have small teeth in a normal jaw or missing teeth. This can lead to uneven spaces because some teeth lead into vacant areas. Uneven spaces shouldn’t be taken lightly as they have a chance of becoming a periodontal disease later on as the gums stay unprotected. Other problems they can lead to is incorrect functioning and an unattractive smile.

People also confuse spacing and crowding as the same problem, but they are entirely different. Crowing occurs when there is no space left for the teeth to go out of the gum. Other causes of crowding are incorrect eruption from the gum or the teeth are larger than the allotted space. Crowding can lead to an improper pattern of the bite, dental decay and an unattractive smile.

Braces can effectively correct crowding and spacing problems. However, Dr. David Morrow orthodontist at York Mills reveals that the first few weeks with braces require some adjustments, and sometimes additional appointments may be needed. This is the reason why appointments should be made at a time when the child has enough free time (from school and other commitments) to adjust.

3.  Cleft lip or cleft palate

Cleft palate stands for a split in the mouth’s roof, while the clef lip means an upper lift split. This problem is very rare and occurs in 1 or 2 children out of 1,000 born. This condition can be inherited by the child if any member of the family has it.

This condition can result in dental problems such as extra teeth, crooked teeth and small teeth. Children with cleft lip or palate require braces because it helps the teeth to grow in a straight position.

If left unattended, it can result in speech and eating problems.

Parents who can identify the need for braces shouldn’t make any delays to make sure that child doesn’t suffer from any complications in the long run.

The above entry is a guest blog entry.